Application
Rice
Home > Application  >  Rice

Rice is a cereal grain and the most widely consumed staple food for a large part of the world's human population, especially in Asia. Rice is the most important grain with regard to human nutrition and caloric intake, providing more than one fifth of the calories consumed worldwide by humans.

Rice pests include weeds, pathogens, insects, nematode, rodents, and birds. A variety of factors can contribute to pest outbreaks, including climatic factors, improper irrigation, the overuse of insecticides and high rates of nitrogen fertilizer application. Weather conditions also contribute to pest outbreaks. For example, rice gall midge and army worm outbreaks tend to follow periods of high rainfall early in the wet season, while thrips outbreaks are associated with drought.

Insects

Major rice insect pests include: the brown planthopper (BPH), several spp. of stemborers - including those in the genera Scirpophaga and Chilo, the rice gall midge, several spp. of rice bugs - notably in the genus Leptocorisa, the rice leafroller and rice weevils. 

Diseases

Main article: List of rice diseases

Rice blast, caused by the fungus Magnaporthe grisea, is the most significant disease affecting rice cultivation. Other major rice diseases include: sheath blight, rice ragged stunt (vector: BPH), and tungro (vector: Nephotettix spp). There is also an ascomycete fungus, Cochliobolus miyabeanus, that causes brown spot disease in rice. 

Nematodes

Several nematode species infect rice crops, causing diseases such as Ufra (Ditylenchus dipsaci ), White tip disease (Aphelenchoide bessei ), and root knot disease (Meloidogyne graminicola ). Some nematode species such as Pratylenchus spp. are most dangerous in upland rice of all parts of the world. Rice root nematode (Hirschmanniella oryzae) is a migratory endoparasite which on higher inoculum levels will lead to complete destruction of a rice crop. Beyond being obligate parasites, they also decrease the vigor of plants and increase the plants' susceptibility to other pests and diseases. 

Other Pests

These include: the apple snail Pomacea canaliculata, panicle rice mite, rats, and the weed Echinochloa crusgali.



Herbicide
Fungicide
Insecticide
Bio-pesticide
Fertilizer
Plant Growth Regulator